Environment

The ecosystem of any environment is quite complex, and to this day people are still trying to grasp not only the intricate details of the inter-relationship between species but also how to balance lifestyle, economics (means of distribution – not necessarily of one system or another)  and the environment. This page is quite large but has plenty of information regarding the environment in the below mentioned areas.

See below on how you may be able to help the Turrbal with a revegetation project and/or check out the list of flora for the region if you are interested in local provenance species (not yet a complete list). Top of page

Some of the areas covered below are:

Brisbane River Catchment
Logan River Catchment
Pine River and Bramble Bay Environment
Moreton Bay Environment
De-silting

Impacts of modifying catchment flow

Reference material

Source Material
Brief Plant Listing

Since the arrival of Europeans in Australia the rate of change in the natural environment has increased dramatically.  As land was required in Brisbane for housing and farming ancient trees were felled, estuaries, gullies and wetlands filled-in, local plants and animals reduced and foreign species introduced, and the European way of looking at the environment was promoted. Below is some information and references for the state of some of the waterways within Turrbal homelands.  These include, but are not limited to, the Brisbane River, Logan River and the Pine River with some basic information about Moreton bay. Over time more information will be put on site.

Brisbane River Catchment

Historical Features

“Reports by early [European] explorers such as Cunningham and Oxley indicate rainforest once fringed the Brisbane River and its major tributaries, especially on the broader floodplains such as St. Lucia and Seventeen Mile Rock. The coastal lowlands were extensively vegetated with Melaleuca woodlands in low lying, poorly drained coastal areas. … When first described by Europeans, the lower reaches of the Brisbane River were fringed by a mosaic of open forest, closed forest and rainforest” (Young, 1990 in Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 6 – 8 1996).  “Historically, the Brisbane River contained upstream bars and shallows and has a natural tidal limit of only 16km. The current tidal limit now extends 85km upstream due to continual channel dredging” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Tidal Brisbane River’ Chapter 12 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.75). “Even up to the 1930s, the water was very clear, with reports of people seeing the river bed 5 or 6m below the surface. In the middle tidal reaches today, visibility is about 0.2m” (Young, 1990 in Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 6 – 2 1996).

Consequences of Environmental Modification post-European settlement

Impact on Native Plants

“A huge number of plant species have been introduced into the catchment; ornamentals, vegetables, crops, natives from other regions, fodder species and weeds. Up to 60% of urban bushland remnants suffer from some level of weed invasion, either from human influence (dumping of garden clippings, misguided revegetation) or by natural means (wind blown seeds, dispersal by birds and animals, spread by water) (BCC, 1990). The water systems are also threatened by aquatic species introduced by people, amongst other things, emptying aquarium plants into stormwater drains. Major weeds in the catchment include:

§         Lantana monteuidensis (creeping lantana)

§         Lantana camera (lantana)

§         Baccharis halimfolia (groundsel bush)

§         Celtis sinensis (Chinese elm)

§         Cinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)

§         Protasparagus africanis (a climbing asparagus)

§         Bryophyllum spp. (mother of millions)

§         Cassia spp. (exotic cassia)

The introduction of exotic plants in many of the creeks of the Brisbane River has resulted in substantial changes to the aquatic environment (Arthington et al, 1983). Exotic grasses, especially para grass (Brachiaria mutica), and also green couch (Cynodon dactylon) have reduced the extent of free water by growing into stream channels, and have substantially reduced flow velocities in the lower reaches of most creeks in the region. Creeks with dense para grass have little or no native aquatic vegetation. Floating exotic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), salvinia (Salvinia auriculate) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) blanket some reaches. Native aquatic macrophytes have declined, apparently due to dredging, saltation and other disturbances (Arthington et al, 1983).” (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 6-9 1996).

Impact on Native Animals

“The effects of urban and industrial development (including dredging of the river and washcutting of the banks) have resulted in the loss of a number of species of fauna from the river and river bank habitats in its lower reaches. These include the false water rat, eastern quoll, grey kangaroo, rufous bettong, platypus, magpie goose, brolga, frilled neck lizard, and graceful treefrog (Plowman, 1990)” (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 6-10 1996).

Sewage Effluent and Treatment

“The collection, treatment and discharge of sewage from urban areas is the major or point source of pollution. Each person generates roughly 250 litres of sewage every day. For Brisbane, that corresponds to about 130 GL/year – or 10% of the annual freshwater flow in the Brisbane River. Without treatment, the results would be catastrophic” (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 3 – 12 1996).

“Faecal contamination

The concentration of faecal material in the Tidal Brisbane River is extremely variable. There is a correlation between high faecal contamination and high runoff from rainfall. Concentrations of faecal coliforms in the Tidal Brisbane River often exceed the ANZECC guidelines for primary contact recreation (e.g. swimming)” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Tidal Brisbane River’ Chapter 12 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.78).

The Effect of Foreign Animals

“In 1887 perch, carp, trout and tench were released into Gold Creek Reservoir. Few of these seemed to have survived, with the exception of the carp, which was probably Carassius carassius, which still survives in the Brisbane River (Thomson, 1978). The mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) and guppy (Poecilia reticulata) were introduced to the upper reaches of the Brisbane River system by the Brisbane City Council in the 1920s and 30s as a biological control agent for mosquito larvae. The mosquito fish is the most widespread exotic fish in the system and is implicated in the displacement of surface-feeding native species (Arthington et al, 1983).

More recently several introduced species of aquarium fish have become established, probably through a number of separate introductions (Arthington et al, 1983). The swordtail (Xiphphorus hilleri) is probably the most common introduced aquarium fish and is found throughout Kedron Brook, Moggill Creek and Enoggera Creek (Arthington et al, 1983). In some very degraded areas mosquito fish and aquarium species comprise 80-90% of the total fish assemblage (Arthington, 1990) (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 6-11 1996)”.

Channelisation

Replacing natural systems with artificial banks has drastically altered the interaction of biological elements of the waterways. Aquatic and riparian vegetation acts as a filter to the water system, trapping sediments, removing nutrients, slowing water flow, reducing erosion and acting as a habitat for a host of aquatic and terrestrial animals. Replacing these biological filters with concrete and other artificial banks contributes to reduced water quality in the River (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 6-6 1996)”.

Summary of Developmental Impact

“The pressures which most shaped the current condition of the waterways have been vegetation clearing, river regulation and channel modification. Since 1820, 80% of the lands in the catchment have been cleared or extensively modified” (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. ii 1996).  “The coastal lowlands continue to have higher rates of clearing than the other physical regions of south east Queensland. Riparian vegetation has been extensively cleared since the 1830s, with lowland rainforest and the blue gum forests of the alluvial flood plains being largely eliminated (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways Gutteridge Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. iii 1996). “The impacts on the waterways have been an increase in runoff and a marked increase in sediment transport… Tree clearing along banks and fragmentation of catchment vegetation have also impacted on native animals. Trees along river banks are used for feeding, shelter and breeding by such wildlife as flying foxes, treefrogs, eastern quolls and black cockatoos. Some of the animals rely on riverine vegetation as their main habitat, while others are transient visitors which are more affected by the loss of trees in the catchment” (Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways – Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, p. 3-10 1996).

Logan River Catchment

Regional Description

The Logan River is 185km long and flows through an extensive floodplain delta for much of its length. The headwaters are located in Mt. Barney National Park and are in relatively pristine condition. The catchment of the upper reaches of the river are largely cleared for grazing, dairying and some irrigated agriculture. The remainder of the Logan River flows through a combination of urban and rural residential areas and comprises bar-built estuaries dominated by tidal exchange. The Logan River enters Moreton Bay at a point just south of Lagoon Island . The Logan River catchment covers 2986km2 and land use is dominated by grazing and natural bush. … (Description extracted from State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001)” (in Ecosystem Health Monitoring Program Annual Technical Report 2001/2002 p.35)

Water Quality

Nutrients

Nutrient concentrations in the freshwater reaches of the Logan and Albert Rivers catchments are frequently high and for the most part exceed QWQ [Queensland Water Quality] guidelines. Land uses in the area that may affect nutrient concentrations include cattle grazing, poultry farming, a rendering plant, soil conditioning, a tannery, a gelatine factory and a landfill. Many of these activities are located within the Bromelton industrial area just west of Beaudesert on the Logan River . Ammonium concentrations are high upstream and downstream of the Beaudesert [sewage treatment plant] STP” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.84).

Suspended sediment

Except in the very upper reaches of the Logan River, concentrations of suspended solids consistently exceed QWQ guidelines” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.84).

Dissolved oxygen

Some freshwater sections in the Logan and Albert River catchments are generally well oxygenated and comply with QWQ guidelines. Most tributaries in Logan City, however, do not meet ANZECC [Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council] guidelines on a regular basis” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.84).

Faecal indicator bacteria

Faecal coliform concentrations have exceeded ANZECC guideline levels for primary contact recreation on several occasions” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.84).

Riparian Vegetation

Below the near-pristine headwaters, riparian zones in the freshwater Logan and Albert River catchments have largely been cleared or degraded as a result of agricultural and other land uses. In combination with the naturally steep, narrow channel, this makes these streams particularly susceptible to erosion during periods of high flow” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.84-85).

“Coastal and Estuarine Waters

The tidal Logan and Albert Rivers are highly impacted and in poor condition. The detection of a large sewage plume affecting Southern Moreton Bay, further seagrass loss from the area and limited denitrification occurring in the river are of particular concern” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.85).

Sewage plumes

The plume of sewage nitrogen in the Logan River is greatest near the Loganholme [sewage treatment plant] (STP) and extends downriver. The … sewage nitrogen signature also peaks near the mouth of the Logan River in response to the Mt Cotton and Aquatic Gardens STPs and effluent from aquaculture. The … sewage nitrogen signature in this section of the river could also be affected by the nutrients being discharged by the Beenleigh STP into the Albert River . In June 2000, the sewage plume extending from the Logan River into southern Moreton Bay was the largest of any in the river estuaries flowing into Moreton Bay . … Discharges are potentially high in nutrients, organic matter, pathogens and other pollutants. Currently, 40ML of wastewater is produced per day (235litres/person/day) in Logan City , while Beaudesert Shire produces 3ML per day” (Liz O’Brien, Paul Maxwell, Ivan Holland, Angela Grice and Dieter Tracey ‘Logan/Albert Rivers and Redland Waterways’ Chapter 13 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership, p.85).

Pine River and Bramble Bay Environment

Bramble Bay is the most degraded embayment of Moreton Bay. This is primarily a result of the high levels of nutrients and sediments that are transported into Bramble Bay from the Brisbane and Pine Rivers. Approximately 63% of the total sediment load and 51% of the nitrogen load into Moreton Bay is predicted to enter via the Brisbane River alone. Significant proportions of nutrients are also transported into Bramble Bay from Hays Inlet and Cabbage Tree Creek. Also contributing to Bramble Bay’s poor condition is poor flushing, the area possessing the longest residence time of Moreton Bay (59 to 62 days). Bramble Bay is within a General Use Zone of Moreton Bay Marine Park and contains areas within the Moreton Bay Ramsar site” (Angela Grice, Paul Maxwell and Ivan Holland, p.11-12 chapter 15 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001).

Water quality

Nutrients

“Nutrient concentrations in Bramble Bay, including inorganic and total nitrogen and phosphorus, are the highest in Moreton Bay. As in the other embayments within Moreton Bay, levels of inorganic nitrogen remain low during dry periods. However, during wet periods both ammonium and nitrate levels increase considerably For example, in February 2001 ammonium and nitrate concentrations were recorded at 10µM and 40µM N, respectively. These levels are extremely high for coastal embayments, and have considerable ecological implications. The high nutrient concentrations in Bramble Bay are largely attributable to inputs from the Brisbane and Pine Rivers, though isolated nutrient plumes containing ammonium and nitrate also extend from Cabbage Tree Creek” (Angela Grice, Paul Maxwell and Ivan Holland, p.11-12 chapter 15 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001).

Sewage plumes

“The most prominent sewage plumes of Moreton Bay occur in Bramble Bay. The extent of these plumes varies with season. In summer, two distinct sewage plumes emanate from the Brisbane and Pine Rivers, extending up to 20km away from the point sources. In winter, the sewage plume is considerably reduced, probably due to reduced flows from the river estuaries into the Bay” (Angela Grice, Paul Maxwell and Ivan Holland, p.11-12 chapter 15 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001).

Water clarity

Bramble Bay also contains the highest levels of suspended particles, based on high turbidity and low secchi disc values. This is caused by the deposition of new sediments from the catchment in combination with continual resuspension of existing muddy sediments. Studies on sediment patterns in Bramble Bay have shown that wind and tidal current provide sufficient energy to resuspend fine muddy sediments from the shallow sea floor on a daily basis” (Angela Grice, Paul Maxwell and Ivan Holland, p.11-12 chapter 15 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001).

Seagrass loss

“Historically, dugongs and turtles grazed on seagrass beds within Bramble Bay, but high turbidity and nutrients eliminated these beds at least 30 years ago. Current water quality conditions of Bramble Bay are unsuitable for the re-establishment of seagrass meadows” (Angela Grice, Paul Maxwell and Ivan Holland, p.11-12 chapter 15 in State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001).

Moreton Bay Environment

“Description of the waterways

Moreton Bay is a semi-enclosed embayment 80km in length, ranging in width from 35km in the north to 5km in the south. Many of the major rivers and creeks in south-east Queensland flow into the Bay; these include the Caboolture, Pine, Brisbane, Bremer and Logan Rivers. The combined catchment area of rivers and creeks discharging into Moreton Bay is approximately 22 000km2, while the area of the Bay itself is (1523km2). Moreton Bay was declared a Marine Park in 1993 and has been listed as a wetland of international significance under the Ramsar Convention” (p. 98 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership).

“Flora and fauna

Moreton Bay is home to a very diverse range of flora and fauna, largely due to the biogeographical overlap of tropical and subtropical taxa. Ecosystems occurring within this region include rocky and coral reefs, seagrass meadows, saltmarshes, mangroves and ocean beaches” (p. 99 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership).

“Fringing vegetation

Extensive mangrove forests line intertidal and estuarine waterways and cover approximately 140km2 (0.6%) of Moreton Bay’s area. “Eight species of mangroves are found in Moreton Bay [and the surrounding waterways]: Acrostichum speciosum [mangrove fern], Aegiceras corniculatum [river mangrove], Avicennia marina [grey (or white) mangrove], Bruguiera gymnorrhiza [large leaf orange mangrove], Ceriops australis [yellow mangrove], Excocecaria agallocha [milky (blind-your-eye) mangrove], Lumnitzera racemosa [black mangrove] and Rhizophora stylosa [red mangrove]. They provide important habitat for the juveniles of many fish, crab and prawn species and are important as roost sites and feeding grounds for local and migrating birds. Mangroves cover large areas on the islands and on the mainland coasts of Moreton Bay [as well as the river systems]. Mangroves play an essential role in stabilising coastal foreshore areas [and river banks,] and in binding up fine silt sediment. Erosion is reduced, along with turbidity, and deeper estuarine channels are maintained. Coastal wetland areas including saltmarshes, samphire, grassland, swamp oak, sedgeland, paperbark and heath communities cover approximately 190km2 in Moreton Bay and are found fringing its islands and coastal areas” (p.99 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership). “Between 2500 and 3500 tonnes of seafood are harvested annually from the Bay by 400 commercial fishing boats. An estimated 2000 tonnes of fish are caught by 300 000 recreational fishers in the Bay each year. A 1988 study valued the Bay’s mangroves at $8,380 a hectare based on the catch of marketable fish alone. (Wetlands – More than just wet land: Moreton Bay – The State of Queensland . Environmental Protection Agency 2000 BP916 February 2000 p.1)”

“Seagrass

Seagrass meadows are found in shallow, subtidal and intertidal areas of Moreton Bay and cover almost 250km2 (1.1%) of the Bay’s area. Despite this relatively small coverage, seagrasses form one of the critical habitats for biodiversity in the region. They provide a major food source for dugongs and turtles, and nursery grounds for commercially important species including prawns. Additionally, seagrasses assimilate and recycle nutrients within the ecosystem, trap sediments and stabilise the seabed. Seven seagrass species are found in the bay: Zostera capricorni, Halophila ovalis, Halophila spinulosa, Halophila decipens, Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium and Cymodocea serrulata” (p. 99 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership).

“Coral

Coral communities are broadly distributed throughout Moreton Bay. They occur on the mainland coast at Wellington Point and Cleveland, on the islands of Waterloo Bay; Peel, Goat, Coochiemudlo, and Macleay Islands; and at Myora off North Stradbroke Island. Corals require a hard substrate on which to attach and most are found in Moreton Bay at depths of less than 3m. Approximately 40 species of corals have been identified from reefs and are often patchy and interspersed amongst seagrass and sandy substrates” (p. 100 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership).

“Other fauna

Approximately 600 dugongs inhabit Moreton Bay. Dugongs are listed as vulnerable to extinction by the World Conservation Union due to the large-scale hunting that occurred around the end of the 19th century. Dugongs graze on the shallow seagrass beds in Moreton Bay, highlighting the importance of seagrass conservation. Moreton Bay is also an important feeding ground for approximately 10 000 marine turtles. Six species have been identified: loggerhead turtle, green turtle, hawksbill turtle, leatherback turtle, olive ridley turtle and flatback turtle. Only the green, loggerhead and hawksbill turtles have resident populations in the Bay. More than 273 species of birds from 65 families have been recorded in Moreton Bay; these include 33 species of migratory and 11 species of resident shorebird. The Moreton Bay-Great Sandy Straits Region is the second most important migratory shorebird refuge in terms of population numbers in Queensland . For roosting and feeding sites it is particularly important for seven species of migratory shorebirds: Pacific golden plover (Pluvalis fulva), grey-tailed tattler (Heterosceles brevipes), lesser sand plover (Charadrius mongolus), eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), bartailed godwit (Limosa lapponica), curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) and the pied oystercatcher (Haematopus longirostris). The protection of roosting and feeding sites in Moreton Bay under the Ramsar Convention is vitally important for the protection of shorebird populations” (p. 100 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership).

“More than 50 000 migratory waders, particularly eastern curlews and grey-tailed tattlers, depend on the Bay for survival during their non-breeding season. At least 34 species of migratory waders including eastern curlews, red-necked stints, ruddy turnstones, bar-tailed godwits and sandpipers visit Moreton Bay each September to April. Thirty of the 43 shorebird species which visit Moreton Bay ’s intertidal flats are migratory species listed under the Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA) or the China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (CAMBA). Most migrate from Arctic or sub-Arctic regions at the end of the breeding season moving to the southern hemisphere and stopping to rest before the next stage of their long journey. Not only do waders feed here but they store energy for their return trip north to breed again” (Wetlands – More than just wet land: Moreton Bay – The State of Queensland. Environmental Protection Agency 2000 BP916 February 2000 p.1).

“Distribution of invertebrate and fish communities

Approximately 3225 species of invertebrates and 713 fish species have been recorded in Moreton Bay … The Bay serves as a refuge for several species of both temperate and tropical animals, and in some cases is the boundary of their ranges. This is particularly evident for fish species, where 141 species are at the southern limit of their range and 24 at their northern limit” (p. 100 Abal, E.G., Moore, K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001. Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership).

Summary of Developmental Impact

Since European alteration of the environment many species have been displaced; from a massive increase in human population, and therefore a strain on the ecosystem, to the destruction of habitat for construction practices, the environment has suffered greatly in the past, and if practices do not alter to a sustainable format, will continue to suffer into the future (tokenistic attempts at protecting habitat are not sustainable and therefore a serious process must be put in place to not only stop the destruction but to reverse it where possible).

De-silting

Without a long term catchment management plan relating to de-silting works mangrove forests and other fauna will continue to be impacted upon. With an overall plan for catchment management regarding silting and weed control the waterways can be looked after and the local provenance species can be encouraged to retake an area to both promote biodiversity and bank stabilisation.

Impacts of modifying catchment flow

The “natural flow paradigm is based on emerging evidence that the full range of natural intra and inter-annual variation in the hydrological regime is critical in sustaining the full native biodiversity and integrity of aquatic ecosystems (Richter et al. 1997). Such hydrological variability is characterised by the magnitude, timing, frequency, duration and rates of change in river flow. There is considerable evidence that hydrological variation, as well as volume of flow, plays a major part in structuring biotic diversity within river ecosystems through controls on key habitat conditions within the river channel, and links with the floodplain and the river influenced groundwater (hyporheic zone) (Richter et al. 1996, Stanford et al. 1996, Arthington 1998). Fluvial processes maintain a dynamic mosaic of channel and floodplain habitats that sustain the diverse range of biota in healthy rivers” (Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and the Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand ‘NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY’ An Introduction to the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality 2000, p. 8.2-73).

Reference material:

Abal, E.G., Moore , K. B., Gibbes, B. R. and Dennison, W. C., (eds) 2002. State of South-east Queensland Waterways Report 2001 Moreton Bay Waterways and Catchments Partnership.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and the Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand ‘NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY’ An Introduction to the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality 2000

Gutteridge, Haskins & Davey Pty Ltd, 1996 Task M2 State of the Brisbane River and Moreton Bay and Waterways Brisbane River Management Group, Brisbane River and Moreton Bay Wastewater Management Study, Working Draft Version 1.4

Wetlands – More than just wet land: Moreton Bay – The State of Queensland. Environmental Protection Agency 2000 BP916 February 2000

Do you wonder what to plant in your yard? Other than specific species that you may like in particular, a good idea is to plant local varieties/provenance so that other species e.g. fauna, can coexist in the natural ecosystem. Even though a bird or lizard may sit in many trees the ones that the local species evolved with are the ones to most likely satisfy them.

Below is a start to a species list of flora for the Brisbane region with some source material, this list is only listed as a point of interest until completed; please always verify all information that you gather in day to day life. If you require more information than you should contact an ecosystem restorer from your local relevant educational institution.

Source Material

Key to Euc.s Greater Brisbane – Qld. Herbarium, 8/2001,

“     “   Wattles “     “       – “       “,     2002,

Changes to name/status Flora SE Qld , Vol.2 – L. W. Jessup , “  “, 22/4/200,

I.D. plants Toohey Forest – R. Coutts & C. Catterall, AES, Griffith Uni, 1998,

Plants NSW – Gwen J. Harden , many volumes, 1991,

The Blooming Lilly Pilly – Calder Chaffey , Australian Plants Society (NSW) – Far North Coast Group, 1999

Recognition of weeds 1, Rf weeds- stage1, Bushland weed control – Wollongbar TAFE , 1997,

Trees and Shrubs in Rf.s of NSW S. Qld – John B. Williams , Gwen J. Harden, W. J. F. McDonald, Botany Dept. UNE, 1984,

Rf Climbing Plants – John B. Williams & Gwen J. Harden , “, 1988.

Brief Plant Listing

Acacia aulacocarpa                   Hickory Wattle

A. maidenii                                Maiden’s Wattle

Acmena hemilampra                   Broad-leaf Lilipili

A. smithii                                  Lilipili

Adiantum formosum                   Giant Maidenhair Fern

A. hispidulum                             Rough Maidenhair Fern

Arauacaria bidwillii                   Bunya

A. cunninghamii                          Hoop Pine

Callistemon viminalis                  Weeping Bottlebrush

Casuarina glauca                        Swamp Oak

Cordyline petiolaris                   Cordyline

Crinum pedunculatum                  River Lily

Cryptocarya microneura             Murrogun

C. triplinervis                            3-vein Laurel/3-vein Cryptocarya

Cupaniopsis anacardioides          Coast Tuckeroo

Diploglottis cunninghamii

Elaeocarpus obovatus                 Hard Quandong

Eucalyptus acmenioides              White Mahogany/Yellow Stringybark

E. crebra                                  Narrow-leaf Ironbark

E. drepanophylla

E. exserta                                 Qld Peppermint Gum

E. henryi                                   Broadly-spotted Gum

E. maculata

E. melanophloia

E. melliodora

E. moluccana                              Grey Box

E. nigra

E. propinqua

E. punctata

E. tereticornis                           Forest Red Gum

E. tessellaris                             Carbeen/Moreton Bay Ash

E. trachyphloia                          Brown Bloodwood

E. umbra

Ficus coronata                           Creek Sandpaper Fig

F. fraseri                                  White Sandpaper Fig

F. macrophylla                           Moreton Bay Fig

F. obliqua var. obliqua

F. obliqua var. petiolaris            Small-leaf Fig

F. platypoda f. Moreton Bay       Small-leaf Moreton Bay Fig

F. superba var. henneana            Superb Fig

F. virens var. sublanceolata        White Fig

F. watkinsiana                           Strangling Fig

Hibiscus tiliaceus                      Cotton Tree

Geitonoplesium cymosum             Scrambling Lily

Maclura cochinchinensis

Mallotus philippensis

Melaleuca bracteate

Melia azedarach var. australasica

Phragmites australis                   Reed

Syzygium australe                     Brush Cherry

S. oleosum                                 Blue Lilipili

S. luehmannii                            Riberry

S. moorei                                  Durrobby

More to follow soon

Would you like to help with revegetation within the Brisbane region?

If so then perhaps you would be interested in helping the Turrbal. A project will be starting where volunteers are needed, the project is on the south side near Bulimba Creek. If you would like to help then contact the Turrbal Association on either

phone (07) 3846 7722

fax (07) 3846 7020

or

email turrbal@dakibudtcha.com.au